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Full text of "Wallpaper; a picture-book of examples in the collection of the Cooper Union Museum"

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WALLPAPER 



A Picture-Book of 

Examples in the Collection of 

The Cooper Union Museum 



748.4 
C778VV 



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WALLPAPER 



A Picture-Book of 

Examples in the Collection of 

The Cooper Union Museum 



THE COOPER UNION MUSEUM 

COOPER SQUARE, NEW YORK, N. Y. 



ACKNOWLEDGMENT 

Among the many donors whose gifts of wallpaper have brought to the Cooper 
Union Museum what is believed to be the most representative study collection 
of the subject available in the United States, especial thanks are recorded to 
the Donors of wallpaper illustrated in the following pages: 

Martin Battersby Miss Sarah Cooper Hewitt 

Brighton Art Gallery and Museum F. Burrall Hoffman 



Cole and Sons, Ltd. 

Cowtan and Tout, Inc. 

Denst and Soderlund, Inc. 

Deutsches Tapeten-Museum 

Friends of the Museum Fund, 
purchased 

Miss Marian Hague 

Mrs. Samuel Hammond 

The Misses Hewitt 



/V 



■ 



John Judkyn 

Miss Teresa Kilham 

Mrs. Gustav E. Kissel, purchased 
in memory of 

The Children of the late 
Edith Parsons Morgan 

Catharine Oglesby Fund, purchased 

Harvey Smith 

Miss Grace Lincoln Temple 

Roffer Warner 



^39194 



Reprinted from The Cooper Union Museum Chronicle 

vol. 3, n. 1-3, October, 1961 

Copyright, 1961, by The Cooper Union Museum 




Width of detail. 20%" 



Many years after man first decided that shelter was not enough to satisfy 
his desire for comfort, beauty and convenience, the earliest forerunner 
of wallpaper, as it is known today, made its appearance in European interiors. 
Although the affixing of materials to interior walls permits easier mainte- 
nance than does an unfinished surface, in addition to pleasant visual and tactile 
properties — a practice occurring early in the transition from rude shelter 
into comfortable house - it was not until the late 16th and 17th centuries 
that these same properties suggested themselves in the use of leather hangings 
on the wall. Totally different in character from the rich brocaded hangings 
and tapestries which preceded them, they are today acknowledged to be the 
first true wall-covering; affixed to the walls, that is, for indefinite service. 
Heavily embossed, gilded, painted, varnished and even occasionally flocked, 
decorative leather hangings were well suited to the fashions of the aristocratic 
interiors of the 17th century. Baroque patterns were particularly at home in 
this medium, often incorporating Indian and Chinese motifs as are seen in 
this section of a leather wall-hanging produced in Holland around the year 
1680. 



Along with decorated leather, 
flock hangings exist still today as an 
important type of wall-covering. 
Widely used first during the 17 th 
century as a less expensive substitute 
for woven hangings, the technique of 
sprinkling chopped wool or silk over 
a surface upon which a design had 
been printed, stencilled or painted 
with an adhesive — so that the chopped 
threads would adhere to only the 
treated portion — very effectivelv sug- 
gested the rich pattern and textural 
effects of velvets or brocatelles. First 
applied to canvas, and later to paper, 
flocked patterns competed most suc- 
cessfully with their original source 
of inspiration. Having survived the 
constant changes in fashions and 
tastes during the past three centu- 
ries, this technique still enriches 
many of the papers produced today. 
The strong baroque pattern of this 
French hanging of about 1700 im- 
pressively illustrates the early success 
of flocking in its effort to duplicate 
another medium. A dark green flock 
on a gilded canvas ground represents 
an entirely different approach to de- 
sign than is to be found on the 
leather hanging; here, a flat linear 
and even lacy pattern remains more 
faithful to the qualities inherent in 
good textile design. 




1955-51-1 




Width, 13%" 



Concurrently with the appearance of the substitute hangings of the 17th 
century, small sheets of block-printed paper were being manufactured on the 
Continent which contributed substantially to the eventual rise of the wall- 
paper industry. In Germany, the makers of "Dutch gilt papers" 1 designed 
and printed their work to serve a variety of purposes, including that of adding 
warmth and pleasure to an interior when affixed to a wall. 

From the Museum's collection comes this especially delightful example of 
a gilt and block-printed bookpaper of the early 18th century. Although the 
detailed, unsophisticated drawing of the "island" vignettes is still in the 
tradition of German peasant textiles from the previous century, the designer 
has made no attempt to duplicate the effect of a textile. 




Width, 9%" 



The enlivening of a bare wall does not require yards of silk or leather or 
paper, as the enterprising publishers of Augsburg realized when they issued 
sheets, plain or colored, all ready for scissors and paste. The economy of this 
means of making a wall more interesting commended itself to householders 
up and down the Continent for several decades just before wallpaper, as we 
now know it, came into being; and the pleasure of selecting and arranging the 
isolated figures printed on these sheets must have been an added incentive, 
especially to ladies who knew the value of a beauty spot applied to a face. 
Such decorations, both of walls and of faces, are ephemeral; but a few rooms 
remain even now whose walls bear little figures cut from the sheets of Augs- 
burg print-makers. 




Width, 9%" 



The work of the Dominotiers 2 from the 17th century into the 18th century 
in France and Italy is the most important and well known non-imitative 
ancestor of wallpaper. These printed or stencilled papers, often hand-colored, 
while originally intended for the lining of chests and drawers, or for the cov- 
ers and end-pages of books, were also used to cover an interior wall. More 
often found, at first, on the chimney breast, such small sheets of gay decora- 
tion provided a most economical alternative for textile and leather hangings. 
Strongly influenced by printed textile designs, the patterns for these early 
papers served well in the houses of those who were unable to afford the more 
expensive forms of wall-covering. 

The paper illustrated is a characteristic example, printed in black ink from 
a woodblock, its coloring brushed onto it through stencils. This sheet was 
probably executed in France shortly after 1700 when, as might be expected 
in an art essentially popular, new ideas of patterning had not yet displaced 
the solid, overcrowded designs of the preceding century. Fifty years later, 
taste had set firmly in another mode, more closely allied to that of textile 
patterning. 




Width shown, 30%" 



For a brief period during the mid-1 8th century an especially interesting 
form of wall-covering, known primarily by its German name of Wachstuch, 3 
came into use. A fabric wall-covering with a printed and stencilled or painted 
design, it was an important link in Germany between leather wall-hangings 
and the more widely used but less sturdy paper hangings. 

Above is a particularly fine example of this technique, obtained through 
exchange with the Tapeten-Museum in Kassel.' 1 Against a soft blue ground- 
color are block-printed the black outlines of gracefully curving serpentine 
vines, with their blossoms and foliage still bright with greens, yellow and a 
vibrant red, painted in by hand. Manufactured about 1760 by Johann Benja- 
min Nothnagel (1729-1804), this German wall-hanging is a most eloquent 
reminder of the beauty to be found in such a medium, and should perhaps 
suggest additional directions which the equally sturdy synthetics of today 
have yet to explore. 




1938-62-24 



Indian printed cottons and, to a lesser degree, Chinese painted papers were 
well established on the western market by the mid- 18th century. 5 The popu- 
larity of their exotic designs was so great that the effect of their early influence 
is still felt in many patterns of today. Strongly suggested in the Wachstuch, 
an even more conspicuous demonstration of this influence is to be found in 
the pattern of an outstanding block-printed English wallpaper of about 1765.° 
Originally hung in the Jeremiah Lee Mansion in Marblehead, Massachu- 
setts, it bears a fairly literal translation of what is popularly called the "Tree 
of Life" design that is singularly compatible with its finely-diapered green 
background, closely related in scale and drawing to the geometric bookpapers 
of a strictly western origin. 



In Jean-Baptiste Reveillon (1725- 
1811) French wallpaper found the 
man to raise it suddenly from a rou- 
tine production to an artistic achieve- 
ment. Beginning in the late 1750's, 
at the time when cotton-printing in 
France made its upward swing in the 
work of a Bavarian, Oberkampf, the 
Paris-born Reveillon produced ex- 
cellent wallpapers through giving 
close attention to quality in design 
no less than to improvement in tech- 
nical procedures. As the period's 
most accomplished decorative de- 
signers were French, he was readily 
able to commission from them work 
that brings forward into our own day 
an intimate impression of their at- 
tainments. And of his own: it may 
be regarded as suitably symbolic that 
the first balloon ascent, in 1783, was 
made from the gardens of his estab- 
lishment. 

"The Hunt with a Falcon," the 
paper here illustrated, shows the suc- 
cess of Reveillon's figural wallpapers; 
those patterned in other modes were 
equally well composed, in scale and 
color, for the rooms for which they 
were prepared. 




Width, 2i%" 



10 




Width of detail, 5" 



It was during the second half of the 18th century that wallpaper emerged 
from a somewhat hesitant and desultory infancy into a major element of 
interior decoration, as may be seen from this original design dated 1795. 7 
Greatly influenced by the work of Jean-Baptiste Reveillon, the drawing is of 
a transitional design current during the last years of the 18th century. Incor- 
porating gracefully curving bouquets and foliage with colorful motifs from 
the wall-paintings of Pompeii, a combination characteristic of the last quarter 
of the century, it also heralds the Empire style with the use of varying rec- 
tangular forms. 



11 




1931-45-16 



Width of detail, 12" 



In marked contrast to the outstanding productions of Reveillon and his 
contemporaries are the small-patterned and textured papers of the late 18th 
century. In this block-printed basketwork pattern of about 1790, an espe- 
cially convincing imitative effect is achieved through the use of grisaille. A 
paper of this sort did not aim to persuade its user that he lived in a basket; 
rather, its purpose was to set up an agreeable, if somewhat irrelevant, foil to 
the furnishings of daily living. The suggestion of a three-dimensional sur- 
face, printed only in several values of a neutral tone, represents an entirely 
different approach to the covering of a wall from that of the more celebrated 
panel papers. 

The attempt to suggest such bold relief on a flat surface is a device that was 
greatly to change the character of wallpaper design during the 19th century. 
Linear, two-dimensional design was already at this time beginning to be 
supplemented by clever, illusionistic tricks. Here are seen the beginnings of 
another taste in interior settings. 



12 




Width shown, 20" 



The painting of papers was by no means excluded as printing techniques 
developed; during the 18th century, as later on, many good examples were 
produced. Mural-like panels lend themselves readily to this practice, but 
somewhat more surprising are the hand-painted papers of a traditional repeat 
pattern, such as the expertly drawn and brilliantly colored floral paper, s 
painted in London around 1790, reproduced above. Its boldly-conceived 
flowers reflect the close similarity in design of wallpapers and printed textiles 
that existed at the end of the 18th century, no less than in our own day. 



13 




Width of detail, 14" 



Not always had walls to be covered with flowers and birds; geometric pat- 
terns came into favor early in the 19th century. We may admire the designer 
who had the imagination, and the restraint, to produce the pleasing textural 
quality of this block-printed paper with strong accents of orange, pale green, 
black and white against a clear blue ground-color. Although the paper is 
thought to have been made in France about 1800, it is not inconceivable that 
a paper of such excellent quality should have been produced in the United 
States. Despite the surprisingly large number of "paper stainers" listed in 
American city directories of the late 18th century, practically nothing is now 
known of their work; could not some of it have been of the quality of the 
piece here illustrated? 



11 




l ^^€^^W:&^~ 




Reference to the events of the mo- 
ment is a profitable means of pleas- 
ing the customer and making the 
producer well-off; and there is noth- 
ing very new about this fact. The 
wallpaper here illustrated is a rather 
special instance, however, of timely 
designing in wallpaper, for the his- 
tory of the paper is known and it 
provides us with a rare survival giv- 
ing evidence of design and produc- 
tion in the United States in the year 
1800. Columbia, accompanied by 
Justice, mourns the Father of this 
Country, standing beside a funerary 
urn; the fenced enclosure is reminis- 
cent of the circular iron railing at 
Bowling Green, in New York, within 
which had stood an equestrian statue 
of George III, overthrown in July of 
1776; the arched architectural frame- 
work of the repeating pattern must 
have been reused from an earlier pa- 
per, as its style is closer to that of the 
1770's than to the turn of the 19th 
century. The paper, simply printed 
in black, grey and white on a blue 
ground, was made in Boston by Ebe- 
nezer Cloush. 



Width of repeat, 20%" 



15 




Height, 2H4" 



When coarsened with more self-assertive and literal forms, the classic 
revivalism of Napoleon's Empire over-compensated for its loss of the pre- 
revolutionary lightness and elegance. A block-printed frieze of about 1805, 
strongly colored and conceived in heavy, sculptural terms, has drawn on a 
different aspect of classical antiquity than that which had inspired the design- 
ers of the 1770's; here we are reminded inescapably of the "official" and 
almost humorless style favored by the new rulers of France. 



16 




1950-59-1 



Height of detail, 20} 



In every age, no less than in our 
own, the exotic has quickened in 
man's imagination the play of fancy 
and invention. Very often the origi- 
nal source of inspiration is misinter- 
preted, misunderstood, or poorly 
hybridized, but in the hands of a 
master designer even the most un- 
likely combinations have been com- 
posed into work of great style. 

Chinoiserie, 9 on the wane after 
nearly a century of great popularity 
and influence, made a brief but tri- 
imphant return in the decoration of 
the Royal Pavilion at Brighton for 
the Prince Regent, later George IV. 
Wallpapers designed for the Pavilion 
were boldly drawn and brilliantly 
colored under the supervision of 
Frederick Crace. This portion of 
block-printed paper 10 is only one of 
several in the Museum's collection 
from a group produced for the King's 
Bedroom. Together with a dado of 
pseudo-Chinese, geometric balustrad- 
ing, designed to be joined at the base 
of this panel, the set combines some 
of the more bizarre characteristics 
of Regency fancy within a magnifi- 
cent composition of warm ochre, 
bright yellow and a neutral grey. 



17 




Widthof panel, 30!4" 



Among the many types of wallpaper developed by the French producers, 
high rank was attained by the seemingly endless series of panoramas, or 
scenic papers, issued by Dufour and other manufacturers in the early decades 
of the 19th century. Sets composed of twenty, thirty or even a greater 
number of widths of paper were printed, sometimes in grisaille, sometimes 
in a rich range of color; always, from a number of woodblocks that far 
exceeded the number of comparable screens economically advisable in today's 
silk-screen printing. Such French scenic papers were hung in many a fine 
house in the United States; their far-ranging choice of subject-matter, drawn 
from classical antiquity, contemporaneous travel books, or the imagination of 
the designer, commended them to the walls of American houses in the early 
days of our expanding contact with far places across the seas. The illustration 
shows six widths of Dufour' s 1814 set, The French in Egypt, used on a fold- 
ins; screen. 



18 




Width shown, 25" 



Even the scenic wallpapers, like today's movies, sooner or later return to 
the starting-point, though they require more widths to do so than does an 
ordinary repeating pattern. The single, non-repeating pictorial paper, how- 
ever, should not be forgotten, for it has been much used in the past century 
and a half to meet varied requirements. The early 19th-century French 
example here illustrated might have been used as the central element in a 
wall panel, or even as an overdoor, though the white cat actually gave her 
first life of service, before entering the Museum's collections, as the adorn- 
ment of a fireboard. 



19 



The 19th century was an age of 
many stylistic revivals. From the 
classic solidity of Napoleonic France 
and the violent Chinoiserie of 
Brighton to the leftovers unevenly 
warmed up by Victorian eclecticism, 
these were years when decorative ele- 
ments reappeared in strength again 
and again,, often after periods of neg- 
lect and even disrepute. In the sec- 
ond quarter of the century a return 
to the classical spirit moved the de- 
signers of those times to turn once 
again to the ancient world for their 
inspiration. If their glance back- 
ward was more objective than that of 
their 18th-century counterparts or 
the didactic builders of the Empire 
style, it yet was highly colored by the 
romantic spirit of the times, as seen 
from this block-printed panel of 
about 1850. From a series of the 
Four Continents, Africa — an Egyp- 
tian lady of obviously post-Alexan- 
drian times — fixes the spectator with 
an inscrutable gaze while relaxing 
her stance from that of a Roman 
Deity to the ease and strength of the 
Noble Savage. A monochrome panel, 
printed in shades of brown, it makes 
use of a device often found in the 
textural papers produced today. The 
simulated wood-graining of the back- 
ground is here used to relieve pleas- 
antly the monotony of an otherwise 
plain surface, and at the same time 
serves to accentuate the volume of 
the figure. 




Width, 2014" 



20 




Width, 201,4" 



Also during the mid- 19th century, Gothic elements were once again put 
to use in the vocabulary of the decorative arts. Almost one hundred years 
after Horace Walpole's Strawberry Hill, 11 Augustus W. N. Pugin (1812- 
1852) advocated the use of Gothic ornament with a fervor that foretold 
William Morris's preachments and the return of a two-dimensional approach 
to wallpaper design. In this paper, executed in two shades of green flock, 
one of a series produced between 1848 and 1860 for the Houses of Parlia- 
ment, Pugin has presented symbols of Great Britain in a restrained pattern 
of marked Gothic character. 



21 



As has already been observed, 
western design has recurrently been 
refreshed by an infusion of eastern, 
often Chinese, ideas. Sometimes 
those have been used at one remove, 
revised by the western designer; at 
other times they have been allowed 
to speak for themselves with no 
more interpretation than that 
provided by the western beholder's 
delight in their inventiveness in pat- 
terning, the characteristically un- 
western use of color, their unfamiliar 
view of natural forms. The painted 
paper here shown is testimony not 
only to the China trade, that made 
the fortunes of many enterprising 
Americans in the last century, but 
to the taste of Americans who liked 
even the simpler and more routine 
productions of Chinese workshops. 
The paper, of which this is an 
unused piece, is known to have been 
hung in 1865 on the walls of a house 
at Nahant, Massachusetts. 




Width of detail, 24" 



22 




Width of repeat, 18% 



The early machine-made products of the Industrial Age, 12 although ad- 
mired by most Victorians, were correspondingly despised by those few who 
saw the need to control their uninhibited growth. In this French wallpaper, 
designed to be used in a child's room of the 1870's or 80's, can be seen a 
relentless three-dimensionality in vivid coloring; perhaps in their very 
airlessness such papers unconsciously gave an advance notice of the simplifi- 
cation, the cleaning away of meaningless redundance, that were to follow. 



23 




Width oe repeat, 18y 2 " 



It is questionable whether this paper belongs in a picture-book that con- 
cerns itself with well-designed wallpapers; but as the era of its production 
was not distinguished in the United States by excellence of design, the paper 
may be allowed here as a useful mirror rather than an admirable achieve- 
ment. The organization of the pattern would have been considered eighty 
years ago to prove that its American designer was up to the minute in appre- 
ciating the newly-available lessons of Japanese asymmetrical patterning, while 
its muddy brown ground, touched with small spots of color and gilding, paid 
homage to western standards of subdued elegance and "richness." Juxtaposi- 
tion of oriental porcelains with the Brooklyn Bridge, whose opening in 1883 
the paper foretold, may strike one as inappropriate, even while one wonders 
whether our glass-house generation is in any position for throwing stones. 

24 



wtm^v^ 



.^fan^ 




Width shown, 18%" 



Victorian fashions had little to do with two-dimensional design on a flat 
surface. In William Morris (1834-1896), wallpaper design found a master 
who clearly understood the principles of flat design and was able to express 
those principles with a great sensitivity of form, line, color and texture. 
Almost more important, he successfully established the reforms so necessary 
to cut back the untidy growth of Victorian clutter. With the first Morris 
paper to be produced commercially (in 1862), 13 the "Daisy", a respect for 
the wall as a flat interior surface is once again evident in the design. Insisting 
on the use of wood-blocks to print his papers, Morris also returned to the 
designs of one of the earliest forms of wall-covering for his decorative ele- 
ments; strongly suggestive of the gaiety of millefleurs tapestries, the delicately 
colored flowers are yet imbued with a timeless quality that kept the paper in 
uninterrupted production until the blocks were destroyed during the Second 
World War. 



25 




Although William Morris strove to master all of the crafts in which he 
worked, his efforts to manufacture wallpaper fell short of full success, and he 
turned to the established firm of Jeffrey and Company for the execution of 
his designs. This firm, long under the leadership of Albert Warner, was an 
enlightened exponent of the period's best in design; and among other accom- 
plished designers from whom it commissioned wallpapers in the later nine- 
teenth century was the admired draughtsman and illustrator, Walter Crane 
(1854-1915). The illustration reproduces one of Crane's later designs; by 
1896 he had evolved into a flatter style, more placid and subtle than his 
swirling, linear papers of the 1880's that seem to have provided one of the 
sources of the Art Nouveau style of the century's end. This paper, the "May 
Tree," meets the demand felt in its day — when ceilings were still at a 
respectable distance above the floor — for an actively interesting frieze to be 
set above a more non-committal filling paper; in its calm and effortless areas 
of flat color the frieze served to evoke the pleasure of landscape for a genera- 
tion that would not have welcomed the fuller exposition made by such scenic 
papers as those produced earlier in France. 14 



26 




Width of detail, lg 1 ^" 



Early in the 20th century the principles of William Morris were given 
a new direction by a group of designers in Austria who, organized under 
the name of "Wiener Werkstatte," 15 sought to combine the lessons of Morris's 
artistic philosophy with the technical and economic advantages of machine 
production. The wallpaper of which a detail is shown on this page, designed 
by Dagobert Peche (1887-1923), clearly illustrates how careful application of 
past principles to a fresh and well-defined point of view resulted in a new 
style. The philosophy of Morris had served its purpose as leavening, but the 
influence of the Cubist painters from the Continent — and also the folk arts 
of Central Europe — transformed the philosopher's medievalism into design 
that is unmistakably of the 20th century. Forms in nature have been simpli- 
fied, fractured and sharply abstracted, replacing with startling, angular action 
the fluid quality formerly expressed in floral patterns. The bright blossoms 
of former years have been relegated to minor elements, leaving the play of 
composition to bold, primitive strokes of simple leaf forms. 



27 




Width, 22%' 



Growing understanding of the new painting in Paris during the first years 
of the century produced a decorative style in printed wallpapers and textiles 
that was as carefree and self-indulgent as were the times themselves. But 
although artistically these were years of revolt and invention, the designs 
which ultimately became symbolic of the age were not without reference to 
background and tradition. Jose de Andrada has based the composition of 
this light-hearted and thoroughly 20th-century machine-printed wallpaper, 
"Amazon," on elements inescapably remembered from the 18th-century 
printed cottons often now referred to as "toiles de Jouy." 16 



28 



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■ft ft <?&4?& c g<?^taa4t •& && 





V0WB 



s> 







(Reproduced by Permission) 



Width, 23%" 



Among the most recent designs for wallpaper represented in the Museum's 
collection is this spirited pen and ink drawing by Saul Steinberg. Consisting 
entirely of birds, it is meant to entertain as much as to distribute pleasing 
and well-composed elements across a given area. This aspect of design pro- 
vides many delightful additions to the fundamental objective of the design- 
er's work: that of filling space on a wall. 

Currently being produced by Piazza Prints, the wallpaper for which this 
drawing was prepared is a delightful reminder of its designer's well-known 
and admired comment on the nature of tilings. 



29 



The technique of printing designs 
through a piece of silk, tightly 
stretched across a light-weight 
wooden frame, closely approaches 
a quality heretofore achieved only 
by block-printing. Providing design- 
ers and manufacturers with a means 
of producing wallpaper of this qual- 
ity while avoiding the cost of prepar- 
ing woodblocks, the screen-printing 
process, over the past two decades, 
has come to account for the major 
portion of hand-printed papers. 

"When in Rome," designed by 
Clarence Hawking for Denst and 
Soderlund, is a screen print not on 
paper but on a paper-supported tex- 
tile. The golden yellow texture of 
the woven silk, reminiscent of the 
damasks of earlier centuries and the 
grass-cloth of Back Bay Boston, pro- 
vides a pleasant foil to a scheme of 
black and grey. Work of such qual- 
ity, imaginatively created from the 
viewpoint and attitude of our own 
time, is an admirable enrichment 
of the long history of printed wall- 
coverings which continues in the 
mid-twentieth century the vitality 
of an admired art. 




Width of detail, 18%' 



30 



NOTES 

1 Manufactured in Germany, Dutch gilt papers are so called because they were imported 
in great quantities into Holland during the 17th and 18th centuries, being exported 
in turn to England and America where their actual German origin was ignored. This 
confusion is similar to that surrounding "Lowestoft" porcelain. 

' 2 Dominotiers: the origin of this term remains debatable. The Guild of Parisian Domino- 
tiers, organized in the 16th century, also produced printed sheets bearing religious 
images, and the derivation of Domino from Dominus is generally believed to explain 
the term. 

3 In English, Wax-cloth. Linen or cotton canvas stretched to frames, pasted with starch, 
grounded with chalk, soot and varnish, smoothed with pumice stone, painted and 
decorated, and again varnished. 

4 Housed in the Schloss Wilhelmshohe in Kassel, Germany, this is the only museum in 
the world devoted exclusively to wallpaper and wallcoverings. 

-'Starting early in the 17th century the different European East-Indian trading companies 
imported printed and painted textiles from India along with hand-painted papers 
from China believed to have been produced exclusively for the Western market, which 
were greatly admired and emulated by European designers. 

6 Printed, painted or stained papers were taxed in England from 1712 to 1836. A portion 
of this wallpaper has been folded to show the Georgian excise stamp on the reverse. 

7 Signed J. Pignet; dates and other work unknown. 

Attributed to the Chelsea factory of John Sherringham or Anthony George and Francis 
Frederick Eckhardt. Although very little can be said with certainty to have come from 
these workshops, contemporary accounts credit them with the finest papers produced 
in England during the late 18th century. 

Perhaps one secret of Eckhardt's success lay in the extra brilliance imparted to some 
of his colors by a protective coating of soluble gum, shiny when dry — a technique 
observed also in the block-printed papers that thirty years later were used to cover 
American bandboxes. 

9 Highly popular during the late 17th and 18th centuries, chinoiserie is a fanciful Western 
interpretation of Far Eastern manners and styles based more on imagination than fact. 

i°This sample, taken from an unused length, was given to the Cooper Union Museum 
by the administration of the Royal Pavilion. The King's Bedroom has recently been 
redecorated with the pattern of the paper, though it is now painted direct onto the wall. 

"Strawberry Hill, the country house of Horace Walpole (1717-1797), was accessible for 
public visiting during his lifetime. Neo-Gothic ornament was used extensively in its 
decoration, which greatly influenced the revival of interest in Gothic decoration during 
the 18th century. 

1 -'Although machine-printed papers were being manufactured in the 1840's, block-printing 
continued to be employed in the production of finer, more expensive papers, sometimes 
with the use of over one hundred blocks for one paper. Various short-lived experiments 
were tried during the middle years of the 19th century to produce novel effects through 
mechanical means: goffering, simple striping, fused-blending of color, embossing. Of 
these, only embossing still survives to any great extent. 

31 



13 The "Trellis" (C.U.M. 1941-74-119), Morris's first wallpaper design, was not commer- 
cially produced until after the "Daisy" was already on the market. 

14 The block-printed scenic wallpapers of Dufour, Zuber, Desfosse et Karth, and others 
are among the greatest wallpaper achievements of the 19th century. Present space 
limitations make it difficult to display these works in assembled form, but excellent 
examples are available for study and inspection in the Museum's collection. 

15 The Wiener Werkstatte in Austria and the Bauhaus in Germany were two groups 
organized early in the 20th century to reform architecture, crafts and the fine arts 
under a unified esthetic and philosophical point of view. 

16 A misnomer often used to indicate any regular repeat pattern of alternating, inde- 
pendent motifs — pastoral, floral, figural or architectural — resembling those of the 
cottons printed at Jouy, near Versailles, from 1759 to 1843, and at many other places. 




32 



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